Literature

Citations and Literature

AEA Publications Sample References

Journal Articles

A) Published Articles

Author Last name, First name. Year. "Article Title." Journal Title, Volume (Issue number if applicable): Page numbers.

Example: Acemoglu, Daron. 2002. "Technical Change, Inequality, and the Labor Market." Journal of Economic Literature, 40(1): 7–72.

In the case of two authors, only the first author's name is inverted and a comma must be placed before and after the first author's first name or initials. Use "and" between the two author'(s') names. Example: Baker, George, Robert Gibbons, and Kevin J. Murphy. 2002. "Relational Contracts and the Theory of the Firm." Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(1): 39–84.

B) Forthcoming Articles

Example: Bikhchandani, Sushil, and Joseph M. Ostroy. Forthcoming. "Ascending Price Vickery Auctions." Games and Economic Behavior.

Books

A) One Author

Author Last name, First name. Year. Title of Book. City of publication: Publisher.

Example: Friedman, Thomas L. 2005. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

B) Two Authors

Example: Helpman, Elhanan, and Paul Krugman. 1985. Market Structure and Foreign Trade: Increasing Returns, Imperfect Competition, and the International Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

C) Chapter in a Book

Author Last name, First name. Year. "Chapter or Article Title." In Book Title, followed by ed. and editor'(s') names if appropriate, and page number(s). City of publication: Publisher.

Example: Freeman, Richard B. 1993. "How Much Has Deunionization Contributed to the Rise in Male Earnings Equality?" In Uneven Tide: Rising Income Inequality in America, ed. Sheldon Danzinger and Peter Gottschalk, 133–63. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

D) Reprint or Modern Editions

When emphasizing the earlier date: Author Last name, First name. Earlier printing date. Title. City of publication: Publisher, Later date.

Example 1: Rawls, John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

When emphasizing the later date: Author Last name, First name. Title. City of publication: Publisher, (Orig. pub. date).

Example 2: Rawls, John. 1999. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, (Orig. pub. 1971).

D) Editions Other Than the First

When an edition other than the first is used or cited, the number or description of the edition follows the title in the listing.

Example: Strunk, Willliam, Jr., and E. B. White. 2000. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Multivolume Works

Multivolume works include works such as encyclopedias, multivolume works published over several years, and multivolume works published in a single year. Below are a few examples.

Example 1: Kohama, Hirohisa, ed. 2003. Asian Development Experience. Vol. 1, External Factors in Asian Development. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Example 2: Kusuoka, Shigeo, and Akira Yamazaki, ed. 2006. Advances in Mathematical Economics. Vol. 8. New York: Springer.

Example 3: Mokyr, Joel, ed. 2003. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History. 5 Vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Unpublished Papers

A) Working Papers

Only papers appearing as part of an institutions' working papers series should be classified as working papers. These should always include a specific working paper number as assigned by the institution.

Author Last name, First name. Year. "Title." Type of Working Paper (such as institution, working series title) and number.

Example 1: Ausubel, Lawrence M. 1997. "An Efficient Ascending-Bid Auction for Multiple Objects." University of Maryland Faculty Working Paper 97–06.

Example 2: Heidhues, Paul, and Botond Koszegi. 2005. "The Impact of Consumer Loss Aversion on Pricing." Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper 4849.

B) Lectures and Papers Presented at Meetings

Author Last name, First name. Year. "Title." Paper presented at followed by meeting name, place, and city where lecture/meeting took place.

Example 1: Romer, Christina D., and David H. Romer. 2006. "The Evolution of Economic Understanding and
Postwar Stabilization Policy." Paper presented at the Rethinking Stabilization Policy Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas Symposium, Jackson Hole, WY.

Example 2: Goldin, Claudia. 2006. "The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Allied Social Science Associations, Boston.

C) Unpublished Papers

When a paper has not been published but can be found on the Web (such as the author's Web site or the university Web site), use the following format: Author Last name, First name. Year. "Title." Web address. Please provide a URL that links to the full text of the article.

Example 1: Zeitzewitz, Eric. 2006. "How Widespread Was Late Trading in Mutual Funds." http://facultygsb.stanford.edu/zitzewitz.

Example 2: Factiva. 2006. "Blogging and your Corporate Reputation: Part One - Listen to the Conversation." http://www.factiva.com/collateral/download_brchr.asp?node=menuElem1506#white.

When a paper has not been published and does not appear on a Web site (such as the author's Web site or university Web site), use the following format: Author Last name, First name. Year. "Title." Unpublished.

Example 3: Acemoglu, Daron, Pol Atras, and Elhanan Helpman. 2006. "Contracts and Technology Adoption." Unpublished.

D) Theses and Dissertations

Author Last name, First name. Year. "Title." PhD diss. University.

Example: Nash, John. 1950. "Non-Cooperative Games." PhD diss. Princeton University.

Web Sites

This is to reference research done on a Web site. If you are looking to reference a specific article, document, lecture, speech, etc., see the sample reference for those types of documents.

Web Site Name. Year accessed. Publisher/Company. URL (access date).

Example 1: Factiva. 2006. Dow Jones Reuters Business Interactive LLC. www.factiva.com (accessed June 5, 2006).

Example 2: Biography Resource Center. 2006.Thomas Gale. http://www.galegroup.com/BiographyRC/ (accessed September 25, 2006).

Newspapers, Online Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and Reference Works

Because newspapers, online dictionaries, encyclopedias, and databases are continuously updated, they should be cited as a footnote in the text. It should NOT be included in the reference list. The note should always include an access date along with the URL. If possible, use the appropriate URL for the site entry rather than the general URL.

If you are citing the definition for "nepotism" in the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, use http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/nepotism rather than http://www.m-w.com/.

Magazine Articles

A) Authored Articles

Author Last name, First name. Year. "Title." Magazine. Month or date, page number(s).

Example: Belkin, Lisa. 2003. "The Opt-out Revolution." New York Times Magazine. October 26, 23–32.

B) Nonauthored Articles

Magazine. Year. "Title," Month or date, page numbers.
Example: The Economist. 1991. "The Ins and Outs of Outsourcing," August 31, 54–56.

Online Magazine Articles

Author Last name, First name. Year. "Title." Magazine, date. URL.

Example: Becker, Gary S. 1993. "The Evidence against Blacks Doesn't Prove Bias." Business Week, April 19. http://bwarchive.businessweek.com/index.jsp.